Connecticut is a state of the United States
It is bounded to the North by Massachusetts, to the East by Rhode Island, to the West by New York, to the South by the Long Island Strait (Long Island Sound), an inlet formed by the Atlantic Ocean and which separates it from Long Island (Long Island). The coastline that borders Connecticut to the south extends from west to east, from Greenwich, on the New York border, to Stonington, on the Rhode Island border. Connecticut is the smallest state in the Union after Rhode Island and Delaware, covering 5540 square miles (14,350 km²).
The slightly undulating ground rises imperceptibly to the north; it is crisscrossed from north to south by chains of hills (Taghanic, Hoosac), framing the valleys formed by rivers that follow the same direction, coming from Massachusetts and flowing into the Sound. The main river is the Connecticut River, which gives its name to the state and divides it into two roughly equal parts. The others are: in the West the Housatonic and in the East the Thames, formed by the Quinnebang.
The capital is Hartford, on Connecticut (124,800 inhabitants); the main cities are Bridgeport (144,300), New Haven (130,000), Waterbury (110,400). The population of the State is 3.6 million inhabitants. History of Connecticut. – The territory that is now the State of Connecticut was colonized in three ways between 1630 and 1640, and in 1630 the Earl of Warwick obtained from the Council of Plymouth in England (the concessionaire of much of the North American coastline) a 120 mile stretch of land along the coast west of Narragansett Bay, with an extension to the west to the Pacific. He transferred this concession to Lord Say-and-Seal and Lord Brooke who in 1635 built a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut River. This was the origin of the Saybrook settlement (named after the two owners), the fort was intended to close the river to a Dutch party from Manhattan (New York) that had settled upstream, on the site of the present-day city of Hartford (1633), and thus controlled the fertile Connecticut Valley.
Traders from New Plymouth had also come to Windsor to set up a post on the river above the Dutch. In 1636, a Puritan minister from Newtown (now Cambridge), a village near Boston, the Reverend Thomas Hooker, took his entire congregation (about 100 people) with him and settled it not far from Hartford and Windsor. These various population groups soon formed a single settlement, called the Connecticut Colony, under the protection of the neighbouring colony of Massachusetts. The Pequod Indians attacked the settlers in 1637, and the settlers fought a bitter war against them and the entire tribe was exterminated.
In 1638 an emigrant corps led by a Puritan minister, John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton, landed on the coast west of the Saybrook settlement, bought the land from the Indians and founded New Haven. It was a purely religious colony, with the Bible as the only rule of government. The members of the Church were the only citizens (freemen). In the colony of Connecticut, on the other hand, with which Saybrook was merged, institutions were established since 1639, by agreement between the settlers, based on the exclusive principle of popular sovereignty, the right to vote not being attached to membership of the Church, although all this population was deeply puritanical.
In 1643 Connecticut and New Haven signed confederation articles with New Plymouth and Massachusetts, under the name of “United Colonies of New England”. This Union, which had as its object the common defence against the Indians and the Dutch of Manhattan, lasted forty years. She bequeathed to this group of Puritan colonies the name New England, under which it has always been known. The two colonies on the Sound had already developed considerably when, under the restoration of the Stuarts, Winthrop, son of the Governor of Massachusetts, brought them together in a single government under a charter obtained from the ministers of Charles II and the most liberal that had been given to the colonies in America.
It enshrined all the freedoms of the popular constitution of 1639 (New Haven, however, renouncing its narrow and bigot exclusivity in electoral franchise), and was so perfect in itself that it was sufficient to meet the needs of Connecticut’s growing population during the revolt against England and for many years to come. In practice, it ensured the colony’s independence; therefore, in 1687, it was carefully protected from the attacks of the Royal Governor of New England, Andros, who had received from his master Jacques Il, a mission to abolish the charters of the colonies. The precious scroll remained untraceable, hidden in the hollow of an oak tree that has since been celebrated under the name of Oak of the Charter. Andros, in the revolution of 1688, was expelled from New England and the charter was taken from his hiding place.
From then on, the province of Connecticut lived peacefully, developing its population of robust, grave and religious farmers. In 1701 it was founded in Saybrook, and a few years later transferred to New Haven, a college for the instruction of Church ministers, which became famous in the annals of the colony under the name of Yale College, named after its founder, Elihu Yale. During the colonial revolt of 1775, Connecticut provided many soldiers and generals for the common cause in the fight against English oppression and wise delegates to the Continental Congress and then to the Philadelphia Convention for the organization of the federal government. From that time on, Connecticut’s destinies merged with those of the United States. Connecticut is divided into eight counties and sends four members to the Washington House of Representatives. The state legislature, called the General Assembly, holds a session that opens in January and has no time limit. It is composed of a Senate of twenty-four members and a House of two hundred and forty-nine representatives, each elected for two years by universal suffrage. The executive branch includes a governor elected for two years, a lieutenant governor, a secretary of state, a treasurer, etc. The Supreme Court consists of a Grand Judge and five Associate Judges, elected for eight years by the General Assembly. Higher education is provided at Yale University and two other colleges.